What Is Programming Language
A programming language is a formal language comprising a set of strings that produce various kinds of machine code output. Programming languages are one kind of computer language, and are used in computer programming to implement algorithms. It is mainly used to write computer programs, which involves a computer performing some kind of computation or algorithm and possibly control external devices such as printers, disk drives, robots and so on. For example, PostScript programs are frequently created by another program to control a computer printer or display.
In simple words-“A programming language is a set of commands, instructions, and other syntax use to create a software program. Languages that programmers use to write code are called “high-level languages.” This code can be compiled into a “low-level language,” which is recognized directly by the computer hardware”.
Note: Programming language theory is a subfield of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages.
History Of Programming Languages
Computer programming is spreading everywhere day by day. When you like a post on social media, send an email, or set an alarm on your phone, a programming language is working behind the scenes – pulling the strings.
Did you know that the first programming language was invented way back in 1843? Ada Lovelace came up with the first-ever machine algorithm for an early computing machine that she wrote down on a piece of paper because no computers existed at the time! Programming languages have obviously come a long way since then, but in order to understand the history of programming languages, one must first acknowledge their origin.
The first functioning programming languages designed to communicate instructions to a computer were written in the early 1950s. John Mauchly’s Short Code, proposed in 1949, was one of the first high-level languages ever developed for an electronic computer. Unlike machine code, Short Code statements represented mathematical expressions in understandable form. However, the program had to be translated into machine code every time it ran, making the process much slower than running the equivalent machine code.
Uses Of Programming Languages
Thousands of different programming languages have been created in worldwide and work of all languages are different.
- Programming languages differ from most other forms of human expression in that they require a greater degree of precision and completeness.
- When using a natural language to communicate with other people, human authors and speakers can be ambiguous and make small errors, and still expect their intent to be understood. However, figuratively speaking, computers “do exactly what they are told to do”, and cannot “understand” what code the programmer intended to write.
- The combination of the language definition, a program, and the program’s inputs must fully specify the external behavior that occurs when the program is executed, within the domain of control of that program.
- On the other hand, ideas about an algorithm can be communicated to humans without the precision required for execution by using pseudocode, which interleaves natural language with code written in a programming language.
- A programming language provides a structured mechanism for defining pieces of data, and the operations or transformations that may be carried out automatically on that data. A programmer uses the abstractions present in the language to represent the concepts involved in a computation.
- These concepts are represented as a collection of the simplest elements available (called primitives). Programming is the process by which programmers combine these primitives to compose new programs, or adapt existing ones to new uses or a changing environment.
- Programs for a computer might be executed in a batch process without human interaction, or a user might type commands in an interactive session of an interpreter. In this case, the “commands” are simply programs, whose execution is chained together.
- When a language can run its commands through an interpreter (such as a Unix shell or other command-line interface), without compiling, it is called a scripting language.
How To make Money From Programming
There are many ways to earn money by programming, some ways are explained here-
Freelancing is the way where you can do work for others. Many companies’ heir people for their office work like making company logo, website and apps. The companies paid h good amount for the freelancers.
In 2019, an MBO Partners’ survey found that nearly 41.1 million Americans identified themselves as freelancers, whether it was a few hours a month or a full-time arrangement. To break that down a little further, nearly 15 million workers claimed to be part-time freelancers, and 12.4 million called themselves full-time freelancers!
Essentially, a freelance job is one where a person works for themselves, rather than for a company. While freelancers do take on contract work for companies and organizations, they are ultimately self-employed.
Freelancers are not considered “employees” by the companies they work for, but rather “contractors.”
2. Making Apps And Websites
You can also make money by making apps and websites. You can create your own website and apps or making it for others. You can write blogs for earning and upload them on internet. Monetization is not an only way for earning, you can also do advertisement for many companies if your website have high traffic.
Teaching is the best way where you can also make money and improve your skills. Many schools and universities need a knowledgeable person in computer or coding field. You can also open a coaching center for those students who are intrested in coding.
4. Cyber Expert
In coding field you can also able to do work with government for arresting the cyber criminals. In present time, the uses of internet is increasing continuously day by day and internet is the main reason behind the cyber crimes. The work of cyber experts is protecting computers and networks from criminal intrusion. Typical employers of cybersecurity specialists are Network providers, The government, Banks, Schools and universities, Airlines, Any large organization with a database, Security consultancy firms. The government or private companies pay h better amount to the cyber experts.
High Paying Programming Languages
All programming languages are important in their own work, but here are some important programming languages. If you do master in these programming languages, then you earn a huge amount by the skills.
The design of Scala started in 2001 at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Lausanne, Switzerland by Martin Odersky. It followed on from work on Funnel, a programming language combining ideas from functional programming and Petri nets. Odersky formerly worked on Generic Java, and javac, Sun’s Java compiler.
After an internal release in late 2003, Scala was released publicly in early 2004 on the Java platform, A second version (v2.0) followed in March 2006.
Salary: The average salary for Scala is $115,446.
Go is a statically typed, compiled programming language designed at Google by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson. Go is syntactically similar to C, but with memory safety, garbage collection, structural typing, and CSP-style concurrency. The language is often referred to as Golang because of its domain name, golang.org, but the proper name is Go.
Go was designed at Google in 2007 to improve programming productivity in an era of multicore, networked machines and large codebases. The designers wanted to address criticism of other languages in use at Google, but keep their useful characteristics are Static typing and run-time efficiency, Readability and usability, High-performance networking and multiprocessing.
Salary: The average salary for Go is $115,685.
C programming is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis M. Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories to develop the UNIX operating system. C is the most widely used computer language. It keeps fluctuating at number one scale of popularity along with Java programming language, which is also equally popular and most widely used among modern software programmers.
Objective-C remained the primary programming language used by Apple for its operating systems OS X and iOS and their respective APIs, Cocoa, and Cocoa Touch, until the launch of Swift programming language in 2014. Despite that, Objective-C is still an extensively used language for developing Apple applications. Since it has long been used, tested, and implemented across different Apple platforms, Objective-C is a stable, reliable, and mature language.
Salary: The average salary for Objective-C is $101,085.
On 7 May 2019, Google announced that the Kotlin programming language is now its preferred language for Android app developers. Since the release of Android Studio 3.0 in October 2017, Kotlin has been included as an alternative to the standard Java compiler. Apart from its readable syntax and complete compatibility with Java, Kotlin now has the full support of Google’s ever-growing community.
Salary: The average salary for Kotlin is $98,763.
5. Ruby (on Rails)
Ruby is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language. It was designed and developed in the mid-1990s by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto in Japan. Ruby is a great language for web applications. Many major web services use it, such as Twitter and Hulu. And then there’s Ruby on Rails, which is the most used framework for Ruby. Many agree that it’s easier to learn than other languages, such as C++. The Quartz article ranks Ruby on Rails as the highest-earning programming skill. You can find many Ruby tutorials online.
Matsumoto has said that Ruby was conceived in 1993. In a 1999 post to the ruby-talk mailing list, he describes some of his early ideas about the language.
Salary: The average salary for Ruby on Rails is $91,876.
Perl is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, and dynamic programming language developed by Larry Wall in 1987. It was designed as a Unix scripting language for text manipulation and making report processing simpler. However, now Perl is used for a host of other tasks like system administration, web development, network programming, and GUI development, to name a few.
Perl also takes features from shell programming. Perl takes hashes (“associative arrays”) from AWK and regular expressions from sed.
Salary: The average salary for Perl is $93,368.
When there’s any talk on programming languages, Python always seems to make the cut. Python’s popularity is not only limited to the field of software development, but it extends to Data Science as well. It is a high-level, open-source language that supports object-oriented, imperative, functional, and procedural development paradigms.
Python is an all-rounder language – it is used for complex mathematical calculations, web development, machine learning, data analysis, task automation, among other things. What makes it immensely popular is its neat and lucid syntax. Besides having active and expansive community support, Python comes with a suite of resourceful ML libraries and tools, such as Scikit-Learn, TensorFlow, Keras, NumPy, and SciPy, and Chatterbot, to name a few.
Salary: The average salary for Python is $79,395.
Java is one of the most popular programming languages in the world, and for good reason: It has very little operating requirements, meaning it can run on multiple platforms. Java is also part of the framework for building Android applications, so it’s a language that is in demand even today. Oracle provides Java documentation to help get you started.
Salary: The average salary for Java is $85,086.
Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, and compiled programming language developed by Apple for Linux, macOS, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. It is a beginner-friendly language that is expressive, interactive, and fast. Since Apple Inc. engineered it, we can safely say that Swift combines some of the best elements of modern language thinking, which makes software development a pleasant experience.
Salary: The average salary for Swift is $97,271.