OESOPHAGUS(basic info, composition &common diseases)

OESOPHAGUS (basic info, composition &common diseases)

It is a long 25 cm tube which has a function of transportation of  food to stomach. It start from mouth and ends on the stomach. It is one of the major part of digestive systems and sometimes it’s also called as gastro-intestinal tract.the help in the movement of download towards the stomach so that stomach in to fight the digestive actions on the food. In other words oesophagus is also called as gullet. Oesophagus present behind the trachea when we intake would the walls of oesophagus contract altogether and exert pressure by squeezing types of hackers and by this moment of food start downward towards the stomach. It also appears in the die farm and entrance into abdominal cavity via hiatus.Oesophagus enters at stomach in at a acute angle. oesophagus has twospintires also which regulate the entry of food. the opening of stomach is regulated by cardiac sphinger.if these fails then it result in

1) heart burn/pyrosis
If cardiac sphinter fails to to contact then due to peristaltic movement the acidic food enter into  oesophagus and can result in burning sensation
2)cardiac /achlasia
if the cardiac sphincter fails to release then the food will accumulate in oesophagus and result in feeling of fullness


it contaims four layers

1) mucosa:-it is the innermost layer it helps in the lubrication of food and it increases the movement of food  towards  stomach and it is most in nature

2)submucosa:-it has glands which secrete mucus &it helps to maintain the moist nature vor oesophagus

3)muscularis:-it is the muscular layer &it produces contractions through which food is pushes down towards the stomach

4)adventia-it is the outermost layer &helps in attachment of oesophagus to the neighbouring parts .
In mucosa serosa is absent.


  • Achalasia.
  • Acute esophageal necrosis.
  • Barrett’s esophagus.
  • Boerhaave syndrome.
  • Caustic injury to the esophagus.
  • Chagas disease.
  • Diffuse esophageal spasm.
  • Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula.

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