What is DBMS exactly?
DBMS software serves as an interface between end-users and databases. It manages data, the engine, and schema simultaneously to make it easier to organize and manipulate data.
Although DBMS functions are varied, common-purpose DBMS features, capabilities, and support for concurrency should include: a user-accessible catalog describing metadata, DBMS librarian management system, data isolation and independence, support to log and auditing activity, support of concurrency and transactions, and support for authorization for access, access support via remote locations, DBMS support for data recovery in the event of data damage, and enforcement constraints to ensure that data follows specific rules.
Normalization is a method of designing a database schema that helps to improve data organization. Normalization in DBMS is a method of modifying an existing schema to reduce redundancy and dependencies.
This involves breaking down large tables into smaller tables and defining their relationship. DBMS Output, a package SQL built into DBMS, allows the user to view debugging information, output and send messages from subprograms and packages, PL/SQL block, and triggers. Oracle created the DBMS File Transfer package. This allows you to copy a binary folder within a database and transfer it between databases.
A database management software functions by using system commands. First, a database administrator in DBMS gives instructions to the system, and then the system instructs it accordingly to either retrieve data, modify existing data or load new data from the system. Popular DBMS examples include cloud-based database management systems, in-memory database management systems (IMDBMS), columnar database management systems (CDBMS), and NoSQL in DBMS.
Types of Database
- Operational Database
- Master Database
- Management Database
- Multimedia Database
- Distributed Database
- External Database
- Information Warehouse Database
- Knowledge Database
- Client-Server Database
- Object-Oriented Database
- End-User Database
1. Operational Database
- This type of database is responsible to maintain daily routine transactions.
- In this case frequent addition, modification and deletion of records is possible.
- It is responsible to update master database. It receives services from the master database.
- They are also known as a transaction database, production database, and the subject area database.
2. Master Database
- In this case frequent addition and deletion is not possible.
- In this case frequent modification is possible.
- It is responsible to provide services to transaction database.
- It also gets updated by transaction database.
3. Management Database
- This type of database is meant for top-level management.
- It is responsible to maintain extracted information for top level management for decision making purpose.
- Management databases are also known as Information Database.
- These databases should be able to maintain up-to-date information and should also be accessed at right time for decision making purpose.
- It is considered as a part of Decision Support System to support the decision making process of the management.
- Thus management database is actually meant for the top-level management.
4. Distributed Database
- This type of database is shared between server and nodes. Server is centralized and nodes are located at more than one site
- It saves a lot of time and money for an organization.
- Distribution of the database reduces the workload on the server.
- Reduction of communication delay as local queries solved by nodes.
- It is expensive method because in this case the nodes are required to be intelligent which increases the hardware cost.
- The main aim of this database is to ensure that the organization database is distributed and updated concurrently in order to have up-to-date information at any point of time. E.g. is banking system.
It is further classified into 2 different types:
- Replicated Database
- Partitioned Database
- Replicated Database
- The replicated database is required for inquiry processing.
- If it is necessary for every location to have frequent access to the same data, replication (duplication) of the data may be recommended.
- It is a very expensive method in terms of computer system resources and it is also difficult to maintain consistency for each data element.
- Partitioned Database
- Another means of distributing the database is to partition it. The database may be divided into segments that are appropriate for certain locations and those segments distributed only to those locations. This approach is called a partitioned database.
- It reduces cost for an organization because they reduce transfer of dats between remote sites
- It may also provide organizations with faster time for answering customer answer.
- In some cases it increases data redundancy, which may increase the level of data inconsistency.
- Problems of security for the database.
5. Multimedia Database Management System
- Multimedia stands for the involvement of various media.
- It is a GUI (graphical user interface) approach, which consists of images as well as the audio sound. Thus it indicates an involvement of textual data, images, voice and animation.
- The file size of the images occupies a large amount of memory. So, it mainly requires optical. disk (i.e. CD-ROM) as a storage media, which easily copies the large file size images.
- The navigation in the multimedia database is managed or possible by the hypertext or by the hypermedia
- Whenever user clicks on the textual information in order to provide connectivity with information is known as hypertext.
- Whenever a user clicks on the image or other than textual data in order to provide connectivity with information is known as hypermedia.
- Multimedia databases or multimedia applications can be utilized in various applications such as training to medical students in the heart transplantations. It can also be used for the education as well as the entertainment purpose.
6. Text Databases
- These databases contain test information.
- These informative databases are usually available on CD-ROM optical disk for the microcomputer system.
- In the text database it is also easy to create, search and modify the documents, which is stored as text data in such databases.
- In this case navigation is possible through hypertext. When user perform click on textual data and it provides the connectivity with information, it is known as Hypertext
7. Image Database
- It consists of textual data and as well as images. It also includes the animations.
- In this database, a wide variety of pictures can be stored electronically.
- It is quite easy to indicate the message with the GUI, which is only possible with the help of image database.
- Images are generally stored on CDROM, which contains a large amount of storage space, as graphic images require more memory area as compared to the text database.
8. End-User Database
- This database consists of variety of data files, which is developed by the end-user at their own by using word processing packages or spreadsheets.
9. Information Warehouse Database
- An information warehouse stores the data of current and previous years.
- This is usually extracted form the operational database as well as the management database
- It is the central source of data, which is used by the manager as well as the end user professional. This database helps the user in analyses of various trends of business activities over a period for the decision making purpose.
10. External Database
- This type of database is meant for top-level management for decision-making purposes.
- It is considered as an external part of an organization
- These are those databases, which are available privately.
- For those data user may require to deposit a fee for their commercial information services
- Data is available in the form of statistics, which may include graphs or pictures.
- Multiple resources are available for the accumulation of information such as Newspapers, magazines, websites, and various informal resources.
11. Object Oriented Database Management System
It is the extension of Object-Oriented Programming Language
The goal is to provide application developers with a repository of reusable objects that is created only once.
Object-Oriented Programming Language
- In the traditional programming approaches developing new programs means writing entirely a new code. The program may be consisting of thousands of lines and every time the user is required to explain again and again. Since each program is written from the scratch the quality and productivity of programmer is quite low.
- In order to remove all these drawbacks, the professional have invented the new concept known as Object Oriented Programming.
- In this case objects are written from each specific task ands saved in a library so that anyone can use it.
- Using this approach objects can be combined and small amount of code is necessary for finishing the program rather than writing the program line by line. The major advantages of OOP are that it provides the GUI environment to the user and enhance the program development as well as the programmer’s productivity.
- The programs produced by the OOP are reliable and contain few errors since the concept of modular programming. is based on
12. Knowledge Database
- It is a collection of knowledge of experts in an organized form.
- It is responsible to maintain the historical knowledge of experts
- Thus it provides the solution to the future problems.
- These databases are part of DSS, EIS, ES
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