Dynamic System Development Method is another approach to system development, which develops the system dynamically. This methodology is independent of tools, in that it can be used with both structured analysis and approach or object-oriented approach.
The DSDM development process is dynamic as it is a Rapid Application Development method that uses incremental prototyping. This method is particularly. useful for the systems to be developed in short time span and where the requirements cannot be frozen at the start of the application building. Whatever requirements are known at a time design for them is prepared and design is developed and incorporated into system. In DSDM, analysis, design and development phase can overlap. Like at one time some people will be working on some new requirements while some will be developing something for the system. In DSDM, requirements evolve with time.
DSDM has a five-phase
Feasibility Study: In this phase the problem is defined and the technical feasibility of the desired application is verified. Apart from these routine tasks, it is also checked whether the application is suitable for Rapid Application Development (RAD) approach or not. Only if the RAD is found as a justified approach for the desired system, the development continues.
Business Study: In this phase the overall business study of the desired system is done. The business requirements are specified at a high level and the information requirements out of the system are identified. Once this is done, the basic architectural framework of the desired system is prepared. The systems designed using RAD should be highly maintainable, as they are based on the incremental development process. The maintainability level of the system is also identified here so as to set the standards for quality control activities throughout the development process.
Functional Model Iteration : This is one of the two iterative phases of the life cycle. The main focus in this phase is on building the prototype iteratively and getting it reviewed from the users to bring out the requirements of the desired system The prototype is improved through demonstration to the user, taking the feedback and incorporating the changes. This cycle is repeated generally twice or thrice until a part of functional model is agreed upon. The end product of this phase is a functional model consisting of analysis model and some software components containing the major functionality.
Design and Build Iteration : This phase stresses upon ensuring that the prototypes are satisfactorily and properly engineered to suit their operational environment. The software components designed during the Functional modeling are further refined till they achieve a satisfactory standard. The product of this phase is a tested system ready for implementation.
There is no clear line between these two phases and there may be cases where while some component has flown from the functional modeling to the design and build modeling while the other coniponent has not yet been started. The two phases, as a result, may simultaneously continue.
Implementation : Implementation is the last and final development stage in this methodology. In this phase the users are trained and the system is actually put into the operational environment. At the end of this phase, there are four possibilities, as depicted by figure: .
- Everything was delivered as per the user demand, so no further development required.
- A new functional area was discovered, so return to business study phase and repeat the whole process
- A less essential part of the project was missed out due to time constraint and so development returns to the functional model iteration.
- Some non-functional requirement was not satisfied, so development returns to the design and build iterations phase.
DSDM assumes that all previous steps may be revisited as part of its iterative approach. Therefore, the current step need be completed only enough to move to the next step, since it can be finished in a later iteration. This premise is that the business requirements will probably change anyway as understanding increases, so any further work would have been wasted. According to this approach, the time is taken as a constraint i.e. the time is fixed, resources are fixed while the requirements are allowed to change. This does not follow the fundamental assumption of making a perfect system the first time, but provides a usable and useful 80% of the desired system in 20% of the total development time. This approach has proved to be very useful under time constraints and varying requirements.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Dynamic System Development Method
- It is a relatively new model. It is not very common. So it is difficult to understand.
- Active user participation throughout the life of the project and development improves quality of the product.
• DSDM ensures rapid deliveries.
Both of the above factors result in reduced project costs.