What Is my Operating System
An Operating System is a software that acts as an interface between computer hardware components and the user. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. It may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.
In other words, the operating system is the most important programs that runs on a computer. It performs the basic tasks like recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices(disk drivers and printers).
History Of Operating System
The first operating system was introduced in the early 1950s, it was created by General Motors for IBM’s machine, the 701. It was called GMOS. That time of operating systems were called single-stream batch processing systems because the data was submitted in groups.
The first electronic computers was introduced in the 1940s, and it had not any operating systems.
First Generation It started from 1940 to early 1950. Second Generation It started from 1955 to 1965. Third Generation It started from 1965 to 1980. Fourth Generation It started from 1980 to Present Day.
Types Of Operating System
Here are some most widely used operating systems-
1. Simple Batch System
- In this type of system, there is no direct interaction between user and the computer.
- No interaction between user and computer.
- No mechanism to prioritize the processes.
2. Multiprocessor System
A Multiprocessor system consists of several processors that share a common physical memory. Multiprocessor system provides higher computing power and speed. In a multiprocessor system, all processors operate under a single operating system. It’s advantages are-
- Enhanced performance
- Execution of several tasks by different processors concurrently, increases the system’s throughput without speeding up the execution of a single task.
- If possible, the system divides task into many subtasks and then these subtasks can be executed in parallel in different processors. Thereby speeding up the execution of single tasks.
3. Desktop System
Microcomputers were immediately able to adopt some technology developed for larger operating systems. On the other hand, the hardware costs for microcomputers are sufficiently low that individuals have sole use of the computer, and CPU utilization is no longer a prime concern. Thus, some design decisions made in operating systems for mainframes may not be appropriate for smaller systems.
4. Distributed Operating System
The motivation behind developing distributed operating systems is the availability of powerful and inexpensive microprocessors and advances in communication technology. The advantages are-
- As there are multiple systems involved, a user at one site can utilize the resources of systems at other sites for resource-intensive tasks.
- Fast processing.
- Less load on the Host Machine.
Types of Distributed Operating Systems
- Client-Server Systems
- Peer-to-Peer Systems
5. Clustered System
- Clustered systems differ from parallel systems, however, in that they are composed of two or more individual systems coupled together.
- The definition of the term clustered is not concrete; the general accepted definition is that clustered computers share storage and are closely linked via LAN networking.
- Clustering is usually performed to provide high availability.
6. Real-time Operating System
It is defined as an operating system known to give maximum time for each of the critical operations that it performs, like OS calls and interrupt handling.
7. Handheld System
Handheld systems include Personal Digital Assistants, such as Palm-Pilots or Cellular Telephones, with connectivity to a network such as the Internet. They are usually of limited size due to which most handheld devices have a small amount of memory, include slow processors, and feature small display screens.
8. Multiprogramming Batch System
- In this, the operating system picks up and begins to execute one of the jobs from memory.
- Once this job needs an I/O operation, the operating system switches to another job.
- Jobs in the memory are always less than the number of jobs on disk.
- In Non-multi programmed system, there are moments when CPU sits idle and does not do any work.
- In Multiprogramming system, CPU will never be idle and keeps on processing.
- Time Sharing Systems are very similar to Multiprogramming batch systems. In fact, time-sharing systems are an extension of multiprogramming systems.